# Graphing Review Assignment

1. What is the difference between a bar graph and a line graph?
A bar graph has one variable that is non-numerical, while a line graph shows a change over time.
1. When would you use a pie graph?
When one wants to show comparisons or proportions.
1. What is unique about a histogram?
Histograms have bars that are directly side-by-side.
Graphing Question: A student wants to measure the the amount of rainfall over a week period and collects the following data.  Create a graph (with title and labeled axes) for their measurements.

 Day Amount of Rainfall (cm) 1 3 2 1 3 4 4 5 5 2 6 0 7 2

Graphing Question: A student measures the amount of birds visiting three different bird feeders and collects the following data. Create a graph (with title and labeled axes) for their measurements.

 Bird Feeder Number of Bird Visits North Bird Feeder 15 South Bird Feeder 8 Wetland Bird Feeder 23

# Human Disturbances Webquest

1. What is climate change?

Any change in the world’s climate over long periods of time and the impacts these changes has on the environment.

1. What is global warming?

The increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near-surface air and oceans since the mid 20th century (and is predicted to continue).

1. In your own words, summarize the greenhouse effect. What causes it?

The greenhouse effect is caused by carbon dioxide trapping heat in the atmosphere.

1. Draw a diagram that depicts the greenhouse effect.

1. Why are some greenhouse gases considered good?

Some greenhouse gases is essential to keeping the Earth warm enough to sustain life.

Understanding the Issue

Go to the NOAA Research Article “Observing Climate Variability and Change”.

Read the article and take notes on the following topics.

 Questions/Topics Notes: 6.  How does climate change influence both predictable (El Nino) and seasonal ways? Climate change makes El Nino predictable and the seasons variable. 7.  How have human activities contributed to global climate change since the onset of the Industrial Revolution? Humans have increased the amounts of CO2, methane, and other gases from deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. 8.  List some of the findings of the report submitted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the National Research Council (NRC). The 1990s was the warmest decade on the instrumental record. Precipitation has increased by 0.5 to 1% in the 20th century in Northern regions. Global sea levels have risen 4 to 8 inches. 9.  Click on the graph entitled “Variations of the Earth’s Surface Temperature.” What does this graph tell you about climate change? This shows that the Earth’s surface temperature naturally fluctuates over the centuries.

Climate Challenge: North Cascades National Park

Starting from where you left off (from main page click on changes in climate, play game, then on bottom of screen click on the causes button).

1. What are four causes of climate change? How does each one contribute to climate change?

Energy: Recent advances in technology have allowed humans to consume vast amounts of energy in the form of electricity, which comes from the burning of fossil fuels. Burning fossil fuels adds carbon dioxide into the atmosphere; since 1750, there has been a dramatic increase of CO2 in the atmosphere.

Transportation: Getting people or things from one place or another with cars, trucks, airplanes adds CO2 into the air from the burning of fossil fuels.

Land use changes: Clearing forests releases CO2 from the plants; it leaves less trees to convert CO2 to oxygen.

Agriculture: Methane and nitrus oxide are released into the atmosphere through farming and global distribution of crops.

1. Now click on the “How do we Know” section to answer the following questions.
1. How has the earth’s temperature changed from 1918 to today?

The Earth’s temperature has warmed up dramatically.

1. Click on “Glacier Monitoring” to look at before and after pictures of different glaciers. What would be an estimated percentage of each of these glaciers has been lost over the past several decades?

An estimated percentage can be from 50-75% melted on average.

1. Give an estimate based on the before/after pictures provided.
1. Buckner Glacier: 33%  (1/3)
3. Forbidden Glacier: 90%

1. Click on the “What are the Impacts” section and list the potential impacts for each of these areas.
1. Sea Levels: Sea levels rise –> Massive flooding + erosion along global coasts
2. Snow and ice: increased runoff –> Unstable ground, disrupted Arctic ecosystems
3. Weather Events: Dry regions drier, wet regions wetter. More droughts, floods, and other weather disasters.
4. Hydrologic Systems: Water distribution disrupted. Increase or decrease in local precipitation, changes climate.
5. Season Timing: disrupts nature’s “agenda,” making the timing of seasonal events change.
6. Water Mixtures: disrupt the delicate balance in freshwater and marine environments, ecosystems suffer
7. Species Distribution: force inflexible species out of their homes, others take poleward or upward shifts.
8. Agriculture: shift in management of forests and farmland.

1. Click the “games” button in the upper screen to take you back to the main page. Once there click on the “Glaciers and Water” section and play the game
1. Complete: When more snow melts during the summer than accumulates during the winter glaciers decrease in size
2. Play the game and then explain what happens during the game as the years pass. Why is this?

At first, in the year 2010, it is easy to keep the water needs of hydroelectricity, habitats, drinking water, recreation, and irrigation satisfied. By the year 2060, it is not possible to fully satisfy each of these areas because the glacier has decreased in size so much that there is not enough water left.

1. Click on the “games” button to return to the main page. Once there click on the “Shifting Habitats” section.
1. Why would plants and animals have trouble surviving as climate change develops?

As climate change develops, the landscape of the animals homes changes in ways that can no longer support them.

1. Try the game and then explain what happens from 2010 to 2210. You will need to place as many animals as possible before clicking the “Check my work” button. Some areas can have two animals.
1. What happened to the species habitat? The habitat grew more trees and lost snow and glacier land.
2. How did it change over time? There were more trees and less glacier.
3. How did this affect the different species? The species decreased, while the snow worm died off (no more glacier).

1. Click on the “games” button to return to the main page. Once there click on the “Sources of Energy” section.
1. Identify each as renewable (R) or non-renewable (N).
1. Wind: R
2. Oil: N
3. Coal: N
4. Water: R
5. Solar Energy: R

1. Try the game. You will need to play the game until you are able to use all four “clean” energy sources to create the amount of energy needed. How many times did you have to play the game before you completed it successfully?

Three.

1. Click on the “games” button to return to the main page. Once there click on the “What we Can Do” section.
1. Find the things people can do to reduce our carbon footprint in each situation (globally, national parks, home and school). Once done with the games read the section “Finding Solutions”. List at least 5 things you can do.

1) Avoid bottled water

2) Reuse or share clothing

3) Buy / Eat local-farmed foods

4) Recycle (paper, etc.)

5) Turn off the lights

# Limiting Factors WebQuest

Questions for Limiting Factors Review

1. What is a limiting factor?

The availability of resources.

1. List 4 examples of limiting factors described in the reading and label if each would be considered abiotic or biotic.
1. Food: biotic
2. Water: abiotic
3. Shelter: both
4. Space: abiotic

1. Analyze if limiting factors always decrease a population?  Explain using the term competition  (make sure to underline it).

Sometimes, limiting factors increase a population when they are in abundance. If plants grow, the competition for it decreases among herbivores.

1. Evaluate if humans can be a limiting factor?  Explain using a specific example from the reading.

Humans can greatly impact ecosystems, so technically they are a limiting factor. When humans turn land into houses, the animals that used to live there often die off.

1. Summarize why there are so many white-tailed deer and use the term limiting factor, in your answer.

There are no predators for the white-tailed deer, so their main limiting factor is gone and there is an increase in population.

Questions for Forest Ecosystem

You will need to select Oregon for your state.

1. State the type of growth the three species show when they begin to recover from fire:
After most of the species decrease, the trees would produce more nuts, which would attract the chipmunks and then the foxes gradually back.
1. Explain if you predict the carrying capacity of squirrels to increase or decrease when the fox population is lowered by disease.  Use competition and limiting factors in your explanation.

Squirrels should increase in population if the foxes decrease, because the squirrels’ predator has diminished. Competition is now not a problem and the limiting factor (predators) is gone.

1. What is the limiting factor during the third scenario?

Water is the limiting factor, because there is a drought and the species decrease.

1. Predict the distribution pattern of the three populations and justify why:

a. Trees: Random, because the tree can’t control where its offspring lives.

b. Chipmunks: Even, because squirrels like to avoid competition.

c. Foxes: Clumped, because foxes live together.

Questions for Review

1. State the type of symbiosis between chipmunks and foxes is:

predator – prey.

1. Identify the type of succession that occurs after forest or disease is:

secondary succession.

1. Click on “Introduced Species.” Explain how the introduction of Kudzu, a non-native vine, effects feeding relationships and biodiversity?

Nut production decreases as the Kudzu kills the trees, so the squirrels die off and the foxes decrease. Biodiversity is lowered.

1. Eutrophication occurs when phosphorus and nitrogen are added to lakes and streams. How do these limiting factors get added?

Phosphorous and nitrogen in the soil gets washed down by rain (runoff) into lakes and streams.

1. Draw/ copy and paste a picture of the steps that occur.

1. Interpret the graph below to describe what occurred in this ant population.  Use the terms carrying capacity, crash, and limiting factors.

The ant population appears to have increased due to an abundance in limiting factors, which caused it to reach its carrying capacity. This means the population is at the most it can handle for its location, so the population rises and crashes until it may eventually even out.

Population of Ants

Questions for Human Population

If you examine the growth of the human population you  will notice that it is quite odd. It took over 1 million years for the world population to reach 1 billion. The second billion was added in 80 years, the third in 30 years, the fourth in 15 years, and in 1984 we were halfway toward adding our fifth billion (at a 10 year rate). In 1982 alone we added 82 million to our numbers, about 225,000/day.  Like all populations, we have encountered limiting factors, but unlike other populations we have responded by overcoming these factors, rather than by reaching a balance with nature.

Let us take a look at the human population over the last four thousand years:  In the year 2000 BC there were 108,000,000 people; by 1000 BC there were 120,000,000 people; in 1 AD the population was 138,000,000; in 1000 AD there were 275,000,000 people; in 1800 AD the population was 1,000,000,000. The population in 2000 AD was 6,200,000,000. The current population for August 18, 2008 was 6,717,706,969.  Within the last year, the world’s population has crossed the 7 billion amount.

 Year Population Size 1 138,000,000 1000 275,000,000 1800 1,000,000,000 2000 6,200,000,000 2008 6,717,706,969 2012 7,013,000,000

1. Create a graph in Google Spreadsheets of the Data Table 1 to examine the change of the human population.  Insert it into your edublogs post.

1. Purpose two factors that could limit human population.  Describe, for each, how humans have been able to overcome these limitations.

1) Availability of Water: Humans have designed water systems that allow even dry regions to acquire water through piping and water storage (wells, dams, aquifers).

2) Acquisition of Food: City-dwellers get their food shipped in from rural farms. Farmers and scientists have developed new techniques and equipment to expand the production rate of seasonal crops.

1. National Geographic put together a short video analyzing the growth of the human population.  Watch the video here.  Select one of the facts from the video you find interesting, conduct research on that particular fact, and share your analysis below (AS Question).

Fact: In 1975, there were three “megacities.” These were New York City, Mexico City, and Tokyo. Right now there are 21 megacities.

Research:

The world’s megacities include (ranked by urban area population):

Shanghai

Mumbai

Beijing

SaoPaulo

Seoul

Moscow

Delhi

Chongqing*

Istanbul

Karachi

Mexico City

Jakarta

Guangzhou

Tokyo

New York City

London

Tianjin

Tehran

Hong Kong

Cairo

Bogota

Rio de Janeiro

Santiago de Chile

Bangkok

Lima

Lagos

Lahore

*The largest city is Chongqing, which has more than 32 million people. It is a Chinese province (like Shanghei and Beijing).

http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/bigcities.htm

“Megacities of the WorldVisit the Most Populated Cities on Earth.” The Most Populated Cities of the World. World Megacities. Web. 26 May 2012.

(Btw Mr. Rott, I love that video! Mr. Malone showed that to his journalism class last semester, it’s really well-made!)

# Habitat vs Niche Carousel

 Student Name Organism Habitat Niche Interesting Facts Jessie Swallowtail butterfly tropical climates, fields/meadows, open forests create foul-smelling chemical to scare off characters, leave scent marks to where they lay their eggs over 500 different species of swallowtail butterflies, live only a year Alyssa western turtle shallow or deep waters protects eggs from predators eat fish, tadpoles, frogs Brooke coyote grasslands, suburban/urban areas too eat mice, insects, hunt in small pairs or alone terrific sense of smell

# Succession Lab

1. Define the following words before you begin:

Succession:

sequence of events that repairs damaged ecosystem

Primary succession:

development of ecosystem in uninhibited area.

Pioneer species: first organisms in an uninhabited area

Example: land with bare rock slowly acquires life

Secondary Succession:

re-establishment of ecosystem in an area that has been damaged

example: burnt forest, hurricanes, volcanic eruption

___________________________________________________________________________________________

1. Symbiosis between two species helped add “life-giving” nitrogen to the ash/soil. Identify these two species.

Lupine seeds and bacteria developed a relationship where nitrogen was added to the ash and soil.

1. Why could grasses and other plants not become established in the pumice plain until after the lupine arrived? (Think ‘cycles.’)

The water cycle helped the lupine seeds be washed down the mountain (in the rain) and be distributed.

1. Give an example of how deer scat (feces) helped the area.

The deer would eat the seeds and their feces would plant new plants wherever they go.

1. State what plants needed that was only available in areas with the thinnest of ash deposits.

The plants took root where the ash deposits were thinnest, as it could be up to three feet deep, because they needed to reach the soil underneath the ash.

1. Explain why vegetation has returned quickly to the tree blowdown area.

Vegetation returned quickly because the newly-flattened out landscape was perfect for winds to pick up and distribute trees, which would grow and attract other animals and more vegetation follows as it goes back to normal quickly; this started mostly by the river, as plants need water to grow.

1. Give three processes that killed vegetation.

Mudflow, debris avalanches, and a tree blowdown killed vegetation.

1. Identify pioneer species at Mt. Saint Helens and explain how they got there.

Lupine seeds were the first to come back, as they were carried by the wind and were assisted by the surviving bacteria. The seeds attracted the elk, which attracted wolves and more plants and animals.

1. Describe how scientists predict Mt. Saint Helens will change.  Include time frame and organisms present in the community.

Scientists predict that a recovery could take 200 to 250years. In 25 years, the pumice plane might be covered with shrubs and trees. In 75 years, it may look like a young forest and in 200 years, it may look like it did before the eruption.

1. During the eruption, Spirit Lake was washed away leaving only bacteria. Now Spirit Lake has returned and has thousands of trout living in it.  How might they have gotten there?

The trout may have been put there by human wildlife conservationists or, if there is an adjoining body of water, they could have migrated back.

1. Infer why decomposers like bacteria are essential to the succession of this area. Include plants and animals in your answer.

Bacteria is essential to succession in this area because it has stayed hidden underground and is key to helping pioneer species grow. Once bacteria helps plants grow, animals will come back to eat the plants.

# The Krill is Gone

1. When you eat a piece of Kentucky Fried Chicken, what is your trophic level?

Secondary consumer

1. A pond of algae supports a population of fish, which supports a population of herons (birds).  For every
1000 kilocalories (kCal) of new algae grown, how many kCal of fish could be added?

algae –> fish –> heron

100 kCals of fish can be added.

1. How many kCal of heron could be added?

10 kCals of heron can be added.

1. Which organisms in the food chain below supply energy for all the
others ?

Algae –> flagfish –> Largemouth bass –> Anhinga –> Alligator

Essentially, the algae supplies the energy for all of the other organisms since it is the producer.

1. Using the diagram and table below, label each organisms trophic level and assign the term producer, herbivore, or
carnivore.

 Organism Algae Flagfish Largemouth bass Anhinga Alligator Trophic Level producer 1st level 2nd level 2nd level 2nd level Feeding Term producer herbivore carnivore carnivore carnivore

1. There are four species marked A, B, C, and D. Biologists know that A feeds on B, B performs photosynthesis, C feeds on D, and D feeds on A.  Identify the trophic levels of all four species.

A= 1st level
B=producer
C=  2nd level
D = 2nd level

B –> A –> D –> C

1. For every 100 grams of A, how much C would result?

1 gram

1. Blue whales are the largest animals on the Earth today. An adult blue whale requires 1,010,000 kCal of krill a day in order to survive.  How many pounds of krill is this?  (Hint:  one pound of krill supplies 460 kCal.)

1,010,000/460 = Around 2,196 lbs a day.

1. Krill eat plankton. How many pounds of phytoplankton are required to produce the mass of krill in your previous answers.

21,960 lbs

1. Describe how the kCals calculated above supports the idea of the pyramid below.

There’s more phytoplankton than krill, and more krill than whales since 90% of the energy is lost at each level.

1. Solve the following questions knowing that tuna is sold in 6 ounce cans and generally follows the follows the food chain below:

phytoplankton  >>> zooplankton  >>>  small fish  >>> medium fish >>> tuna

a. How much phytoplankton was required for each 6 ounce can of  tuna?

60,000 ounces.

b.  You buy an entire case (24 cans) of tuna fish at Costco.   How much phytoplankton is required for an entire case?

240,000 ounces.

1. In an Oregon forest you might have one cougar in 100 miles.  In the same forest you may find thousands of deer (the main food source of cougars).  Why is this the case?  (The same is true of the Serengeti, where zebras far outnumber the lions.)

As one progresses up the food pyramid, there are less secondary consumers than 1st or producers, since 90% of the energy is lost at each level. There needs to be more deer than cougars for cougars to live.

1. Using your own body weight, how many pounds of grain-fed beef must be consumed to provide for your body weight?

I’d have to eat 1,000 pounds to match my 100 pounds.

1. How many pounds of grain are required for that beef?

10,000 pounds.

1. If instead, we fed the people with this much grain, how many pounds of human would it support?

1,000 pounds of human.

# Microevolution & Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

Data Table 2.

 Roll of Number of Cubes (Generation) Number of Cube Total Event Number of White Chips Number of Blue Colored Chips 1 5 nutrients plentiful, doubles 40 0 2 10 nutrients low, 2/3 die 14 0 3 9 no change 14 0 4 10 nutrients low, 2/3 die 5 0 5 9 no change 5 0 6 7 no change 5 0 7 5 pop x2 10 0 8 6 pop x2 20 0 9 7 no change 20 0 10 6 pop x2 40 0 11 9 no change 40 0 12 8 no change 40 0 13 10 2/3 die 14 0 14 3 one turns to blue 13 1 15 8 no change 13 1 16 7 no change 13 1 17 6 pop x2 26 2 18 8 no change 26 2 19 5 pop x2 52 4 20 10 2/3 dies 18 2

Analysis & Conclusion Questions

1. What changes occurred in your bacteria population? Would you expect that all the same changes happened to your classmates’ bacteria?

The bacteria population rose and fell twice, and gained a few blue bacteria at the end. Similar changes probably occurred for the rest of the class.

1. Calculate Create a graph to show the number resistant to antibiotic-A (blue colored chips) and those not resistant to antibiotic-A (white colored) over time.  Be sure to include a title, labeled axes, and a legend.  Upload your graph to your edublogs post.

1. Calculate Compare the % of your population resistant to antibiotic-A to your classmates.  What reason could explain the differences between % resistant?

% resistant =  (number resistant bacteria/total number of bacteria) x 100

11.1% of the population is resistant, while 100% of another group’s was resistant. This group’s white died off, then the blue kept multiplying.

1. Calculate Imagine that all of the classrooms populations were grouped into one large                      population. What percentage of this population would have antibiotic-resistant bacteria?

About 65% of the class’s population would be antibiotic-resistant.

1. Infer How might a population be different if an antibiotic A-resistant bacterium is not able to share DNA with other bacteria in the population?

New resistant bacteria would not be able to form, the population would be stabilized.

1. Connect  Antibiotics are often found in the environment- in the soil, for example. How might antibiotics get into the environment? (A.S. Question)

Waste-water carries antibiotics directly into the environment.
http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/52/1/5.full

1. Connect Misuse of antibiotics can encourage development of resistant bacteria. Misuse includes taking antibiotics when one is not sick, taking them for viral infections (they kill only bacteria, not viruses), and not taking them for a long as prescription says to. Knowing all this, what do you think the public can do to protect against the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria? (A.S. Question)

People should follow medicine directions/prescriptions exactly, listen to their doctors, and take them only when prescribed.

1. Connect Unfortunately, the ability of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics is not a pretend issue.  Read this article from The Atlantic about a new bacterial strain resistant to nearly all antibiotics and answer the following questions (A.S. Questions):
2. How does this situation represent natural selection?

The bacteria that were resistant to the antibiotics survived, multiplied, and now thrive in India, because citizens didn’t use the antibiotics properly in the first place.

1. Why is this situation such a potential problem?

Many people in India are dying from this, and because of political issues, getting help is a difficulty. The bacteria are evolving to a point where they are nearly invincible.

# Biochemical Evidence for Evolution

 Table 3. MATCHING AND NONMATCHING AMINO ACIDS
 Organisms Number of Matching Amino Acids Number of Nonmatching Amino Acids Chimanzee 94 1 Fish 56 39 Mouse 78 17

 Table 4. PERCENT SIMILARITY AND DIFFERENCE IN AMINO ACID SEQUENCE COMPARED WITH THE HUMAN SEQUENCE.
 Organism Percent Similarity Percent Difference Chimpanzee 98.94% 1.06% Fish 58.94% 41.06% Mouse 82.11% 17.89%

Analysis & Conclusion Questions

1. Analyze: Based on the amino acid sequences for hemoglobin, which organism is most closely related to humans? Which organism is the least closely related to humans?  Use data from Table 3 to explain your answer.

Chimpanzees are the most closely related to humans because the results were about 99% similar; only 1% difference.

1. Calculate: Use the information in Table 1 to calculate the percent similarity and the percent difference between the amino acid sequence in fish and mice.

The fish and mice are 44.21% similar and 55.7% different.

1. Construct: Construct a graph, showing the rank of the organisms (Fish, Chimpanzee, Mouse) from least to greatest in terms of percent similarity (Table 4) to the amino acid sequence of human hemoglobin. Be sure to label the axes of your graph and give it an appropriate title.

1. Calculate: The total number of amino acids in the hemoglobin beta-chain is 146.  When compared to a human, a lamprey (a jawless fish) has 21 matching amino acids and 125 non-matching amino acids.  Calculate the percent similarity and percent difference between humans and lampreys.

Lampreys are 14.38% similar and 85.64% different.

1. Assess: Myoglobin is a protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates.  The following table contains information about the percent similarity and percent difference between the myoglobin of various organisms and human myoglobin.

Which of these organisms is most closely related to humans? Which is least closely related to humans? Use data evidence to justify your claim.

The gorilla is the most closely related to humans because it is about 99% similar; only 1% different. The Lemur is the least related, at only 85% similarity and 15% different.

 Organism Percent Similarity Percent Difference Baboon 96.0 4.0 Lemur 85.6 14.4 Gorilla 99.3 0.7 Squirrel Monkey 88.8 11.2

1. Infer: How would you expect the mRNA codons that code for the amino acids that make up hemoglobin to compare between humans and chimpanzees?

They would be 98% similar.

 Name of Organism Name or description of adaptation How or why it helps the organism survive. Type of adaptations: S, B,  or P 1 frog camouflage skin keeps it hidden from prey S 2 Fish swim in schools protection B 3 garden spider venom poisons  its enemies P 4 starfish asterias move S 5 seeds pinecone helps reproduce S 6 Butterfly wings fly S 7 leech poison sedative numbs the area it bit; prey doesn’t notice P 8 peacock peacock feathers attracts a mate S 9 iguana sneaker males helps it to reproduce B 10 sea urchin spikes + poison poisons its prey P 11 horse skull teeth eat S 12 Salamander long tongue catch food S 13 Bat echolocation navigation B 14 plant cloning hormones in the roots helps it grow P 15 snail shell protection S 16 squirrel choosy with acorns energy/plant regrowth B 17 sea horse curly tails helps swim S 18 snake scales + slim body allows it to slither along S 19 turtle shell protection S 20 leaves falling in the fall allows trees to go dormant P

Analysis Questions

Select two adaptations observed in the lab.  Describe an environmental condition that could produce these adaptations and explain how they could have been selected for.

 Possible environmental condition: Description of why this condition is selected for: Scales + slim body (snake) Drought –> lakes dry up Snakes used to swim with this type of body, but it is also fit for slithering on land when need be. Camouflage skin (frog) Drought –> vegetation changes color If there is a drought, and the vegetation dries up to be brown-colored, then this allows brown frogs to blend in and hide from their predators.

# Mexican Cave Fish

1. What is the behavioral adaptation that blind cavefish have evolved to be more fit?

Vibration Attraction Behavior (VAB) is how cavefish have adapted to being blind; with this, they can sense movements in the water surrounding them, alterting them to potential food sources that they cannot see.