Plant vs. Animal Cell Warm-Up

1) Plant cells have cell walls while animal cells do not. Also, plant cells use chloroplast to produce energy while animal cells use mitochondria. Plants use photosynthesis, and have a large central vacuole.
2) It provides structure, support and protection.
3) Chloroplasts
4) Plant cells are shaped by their walls while animal cells are not, plant cells are square and animal cells are round.
5) Animal

Cell Comparison Lab

1)All cells have plasma membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm
2) Plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts while animal have no wall and mitochondria
3)The cheek cells had nuclei, so it’s eukaryotic. The onion cells lacked nuclei so they are prokaryote.
4) Without the coloring, the cells would have been transparent.
5) The plant cell was the amoeba because it’s single celled.

The Effect of Bacteria’s Location On its Growth

The Effect of Bacteria’s Location On its Growth

Q ~ What grows the most bacteria?

a) IV – Where we get our bacteria
b) DV- The amount of bacteria that grows

i.The amount of bacteria will be measured by it’s diameter.(in centimeters)

c) Control: Make sure to use clean hands in order to make sure that other bacteria doesn’t get on the swab; grab one fresh from the container, swab it on the petri dish and see if there is already bacteria on it.

d) Constant variables
Kind of Q-tip
Ruler
Petri dish
Amount of time to develop (5 days)
Temperature of growing environment

e) Hypothesis: If one were to take a cotton-swab sample of a machine in the weight room, a urinal surface, and the girls locker room locks, plus a clean swab, then the locks will have the most bacteria because no one washes their hands before opening their locker.

Procedure ~
1. First wash hands
2. Grab a Petri dish, keeping it closed.
3.Carefully grab four cotton swabs by grabbing them from the middle.
4.Divide the petri dish into four quadrants, by marking with a marker on the outside and labeling according to bacterias’ location.
5.Swab one (the control) onto one quadrant of the dish.
6. Collect three different samples of bacteria, careful to keep them from getting contaminated from other surfaces.
7.Swab each sample onto the petri dish in their seperate quadrants.
8.Throw away swabs and wash hands again.
9.Incubate the Petri dish for five days at 37 degrees celcious.

Quadrants Objects Tested Bacterial Colonies
Quadrant 1 Girls’ Locker Room Lock 3 cm diameter, big, thick, white dots huddle together with small splashes of grey.
Quadrant 2 Urinal 5 cm in diameter, small white specs all over the dish and takes over the control.
Quadrant 3 Weight room 2 cm in diameter, greyish, medium-sized dots hardly visible.
Quadrant 4 (Control) “Clean” Q Tip Was taken over by the urinal’s bacteria, 0 cm

Conclusion ~
In the Petri dish, the urinal-bacteria took over the entire plate, engulfing the control completely in a green, 5 cm diameter. If we did this experiment again, then we’d do three days instead of five because by then it wouldn’t have overgrown. Even better, we’d give each bacteria a separate Petri dish if we could. The locker-room bacteria was the most apparent, with big white spots huddled in a quadrant. Then there was the weight room’s bacteria, which had few, tiny dots, so presumably it was less “dirty.” In answer to our original question, the bacteria located on the urinal grew the most bacteria.

Cell Comparison Warm-UP

1) Which organelle is the powerhouse for the cell and creates energy for the cell? Mitochondria
2) Name the organelle that produces proteins: Ribosomes
3) Which organelle provides transport in the cell and can be called rough or smooth? Endoplasmic reticulum.
4) Prokaryote cells don’t have a nucleus or many other membrane bound organelles, while the eukaryotes do; plus they’re bigger.
5) Eukaryotes because prokaryotes are bacteria.

R Lab

Part 1
1) Moving the slide left to right makes it look like its moving right to left.

Part 2
1) No we cannot see both threads in focus because high power is too much.

Part 3
1) There is no adjustable stage, and there’s an extra eyepiece to look through.
2) The higher the stage, the more magnifyied the image is.
3) On this microscope, we can adjust the light, which gives us more options for viewing.
4) When moving the object left to right on the steriomicroscope, it looks like it’s moving the same way when viewed through the lens. This is unlike the compound microscope where things look backwards in comparison.

Part 4
1)10
2)400
3)100

Analysis and Conclusion Questions
1) Low
2) It shrinks, but it gets closer
3) Or else there’d be air bubbles clouding our vision
4) high power
5) It must be moved left to right to keep up with it, because things are seen backwards in a compound microscope.
6) A steriomicroscope would be best because the adjustable lights on it could provide better viewing options.

3.1 and 3.2 Review

3.1 ~

1) Hooke, Leeuwenhoek, Schgleiden, Schwann and Virchow contributed to the cell theory.

2) The compound microscope was invented in the late 1500s, then leeuwenhoek’s single-lens micriscope was an improvement. The microscope was improved through the century and a half, where it could magnify much better.

3) All living things are made up of cells.

4) All cells are produced by previously existing cells.

5) Cells are the basic unit of living things.

6) The cell theory states that the cell is the basic unit of all organisms, and cells are produced by previously existing cells.

7) Eukaryotic cell

8) Nucleus

9) Organelles

10) DNA

11) Cytoplasm

12) Cell membrane

13) Prokaryotic

All cells have:

14) Cytoplasm

15) DNA

16) Cell membrane

17) Microscopic proportions

3.2 ~

1) The cytoskeleton gives shape and support to the cell.

2) A human skeleton also gives shape and support.

3) The cytoskeleton keeps its shape together like human muscles keep its skeleton connected.

4) Stores/protects DNA, and has it readily available.

Nucleus

5) Nucleolus

6) Conduct protein synthesis

Ribosomes

7) Process, sort, package, store, and deliever proteins

Golgi Apparatus

8) Vessicles

Vessicle

9) Use chemical reactions to supply energy to the cell

Mitochondria

10) Stores water, food molecules, inorganic ions, and enzymes

Vacuole

11) Contain enzymes and protects from invading bacteria and viruses. They digest and recycle foreign materials.

Lysosomes

12) Organize microtubules to form flagella and cilia

Centrioles

13) Cell walls can support the shape of an entire plant; even a mighty tree made up of dead cell walls can stand.

14) Both animal and plant cells have cell membranes, while only plants have cell walls. Cell walls give shape and support while cell membranes form a boundary from it’s outside environment.

15) Chloroplasts conduct photosynthesis, and without that plants wouldn’t have energy, and there’d be no life on Earth because plants couldn’t live.

16)  Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

17) Mitochondria

*Images featured above were made by none other than me 🙂